Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction

Multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) is the medical procedure that reduces the number of fetuses carried during the multiple pregnancy.  It might be a very depressing subject for the intended parents to discuss, however, in long term perspective, MFPR can lead to a healthier pregnancy.

It is a fact that multiple pregnancy is a common occurrence during the In vitro fertilization treatment. The reason is that in order to increase the chances of a successful transfer, 2 or 3 embryos are often transferred at a time. When all of them implant successfully, intended parents are often surprised with twins of triplets. MFPR is not performed when a female carries twins, but may be done to decrease the number of fetuses from 3 or more to 2.

In most of the cases, the aim of the multifetal pregnancy reduction is to increase the chances of a healthy pregnancy. More fetuses are unfortunately  linked to higher chances of miscarriage, stillbirth and lifelong disabilities.



The procedure itself is performed early in the pregnancy (9-12 weeks), when the size of the fetus is very small. Widely used method includes injecting potassium chloride in the fetus via a needle, which is inserted in woman’s abdomen.

As already mentioned, multifetal pregnancy reduction is not performed during the twin pregnancy. The risk of this medical procedure is to unintentionally harm other than selected fetus(es). In order to avoid termination of the pregnancy, most of the fertility doctors and surrogacy agencies will strictly refuse to perform MFPR in case of twins.


How to feel about multifetal pregnancy reduction?

The procedure is undoubtedly mentally traumatizing and has a heavy emotional load. However, as strange as it may sound, intended parents should realize that it is done in  sake of a more successful and healthy pregnancy.


Male Infertility

Both genders are equally likely to experience fertility issues. To give you an impression of how common male infertility is, it affects approximately 7 % of men’s population. To define shortly, male who can not cause fertile female’s pregnancy, probably has fertility issues.


Generally, male’s ability to fertilize egg depends on the quality and quantity of his sperm. However deficiency of any kind can not be observed with the eye solely. Male may not have a problem with erection, ejaculation or throughout the process of intercourse. Medical examinations and tests are needed to spot the source of the problem.


Besides problems with sperm production, males might have issues with it’s transport. Transportation problems occur due to blockages that prevent sperm from delivering. So we already know that in order for males to be fertile they should :


Produce healthy sperm  – Sperm production happens in testicles, so at least one of them has to be functional.  Infections might be responsible for interfering with sperm production. Hormone imbalances as well as cancers and tumors are common reasons of male reproductive organ dysfunctions.


Ejaculate sperm with semen  – After the sperm production, it must be transported with ease in order to mix with the semen before ejaculation (ejection from penis). One of the common causes are antibodies – the immune system cells. Sometimes they make a mistake, identify sperm as harmful and attack it for destruction.


Produce enough sperm  – If sperm is low in number, chances of fertilizing female egg are decreasing. Common reason of low sperm amount is  leading an unhealthy lifestyle. We will discuss risk factors later in this post.


When males have any kind of discomfort or pain in their testicles, inability to erect or ejaculate, then it is pretty obvious that they should plan consultation with the doctor. Issues can be provoked by trauma or any kind of dysfunction throughout the development period of reproductive system.  Don’t feel scared or ashamed, because in case there is an issue that needs treatment, it’s better to identify it early. On the other hand, lack of sexual drive may happen because of a simple reason (for example a hard times at work) and doctor will only give some useful advices.


Apart from medical problems, of course there are risk factors that are caused by our lifestyle choices. In order to avoid causing problems artificially , males should consider :



  • Drug use and smoking reduce  number and the quality of sperm .


  • Frequent and heavy alcohol usage results in erectile problems as well as decrease of sperm amount.


  • Excess weight and emotional stress  may cause hormonal disbalances that may also lead to male infertility.



It is of greatest importance to not exceed the limits and take care of one’s health.  It is also important to follow doctor’s recommendations precisely. Treatment may include surgical procedure, medicines and even more active sexual lifestyle. Alternative choice can also include using a sperm donor and fertilizing mother’s eggs through In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technique.


Please do not forget our agreement to stay positive and do not let a negative attitude to strain the situation. 🙂