Surrogacy in the USA

Surrogacy legislation in the United States varies from state to state and is a subject to regular change. While searching for surrogacy options across the country,  it is likely to encounter states where it is permitted, banned or not mentioned at all.


There is also a variation between states that do not prohibit surrogacy in terms of accepting commercial surrogacy, unmarried couples, naming intended parents in documents and etc. To save time and narrow down the list of options significantly , we have chosen surrogacy friendly destinations based on best experiences and following criterias :


  • Surrogacy is permitted (for heterosexual couples, same-sex couples and single parents)
  • Parents are named on birth certificate and have legal assurances


Surrogacy friendly states
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • Maine
  • Oregon
  • Rhode Island


If intended parents come across a successfully operating surrogacy agency in any other state, it may be still worth a try. Going through surrogacy legislation by state, it is common to find regions where court is generally very favorable despite of not having a corresponding law.


States that intended parents should NOT consider due to the explicit ban currently include : New York, New Jersey, Indiana and Michigan.


It is not simple to talk about surrogacy in the USA due to constant alterations. When reaching out to the surrogacy agency , commissioning parents should clarify all kinds of information about:


  • Current surrogacy legislation in the state, recent and possible future changes
  • Post and pre-birth orders, who will be mentioned in the birth certificate?
  • Requirements for parents (heterosexual, married or in committed relationship, single, same sex and etc)


California, for example, meets expectations for intended parents independant from marital status and sexual orientation – everything accompanied by a guarantee of parenthood rights based on legal documents.



Taking into account the scales and level of development we are talking about, it is not a problem to find a well equipped clinic in the United States. However, intended parents should know in advance that the average cost for gestational surrogacy in the USA is between $100-140 000. This is not an affordable option for many parents. Fortunately, there is a number of cost effective options for heterosexual and LGBT parents worldwide.


Embryo Quality and Grading

Can we estimate results  of In Vitro Fertilization? What are the chances of a successful embryo transfer? What do embryo quality and grading mean? Do they tell anything about possible outcomes? These are the questions intended parents worry about the most. While embryo grading is a complex medical process, parents need and should be informed about every important step on their fertility journey.


What do Embryo Quality and Grading Mean?


Embryologists use embryo grading system in order to make predictions about embryo transfer results. These predictions do not depict the reality accurately. A lot of embryos with low or middle grading lead to successful pregnancies. Moreover, not all high quality graded embryos result in gestation. This happens mainly because grading does not give an information about embryo’s genetics.

Embryo grading system is still a powerful tool that gives a good impression about which embryos are appropriate for transferring / freezing. Estimating embryo’s quality and potential is an important step. It helps intended parents to save time, finances, protects from unexpected misfortune and may facilitate their parenthood journey.

There is no universal grading system. In some clinics grade 1 is better than 4, while in others 4 may indicate the best quality. The most common practice is to observe an embryo after 3 or 5 days of fertilization. However, embryos are not on the same development stage on these days. Embryologists use different grading systems for day 3 and day 5.


Grading on day 3


On the day 3, embryos are on their “cleavage stage”. This means that cells in the embryo (blastomeres) are dividing. Observation happens under a high power microscope. On the day 3 after retrieval, embryo itself is not growing in size – only the cells are being replicated.

Accordingly, grading criteria number one is the number of cells in the embryo. The desired number of cells on the day 3 is 6-10. Based on experience, embryos containing 6 to 10 blastomeres on day 3, are more likely to result in successful pregnancy.

Criteria number 2 is the presence of fragmentation. Fragmentation/Blebbing is the process when the inside of the cells break off and form fragments. These blebs do not contain nucleus. Nucleus is the cell storing cell’s genetic material, DNA. As fragments/blebs are separated from the nucleated part of the cell, they are not referred to as cells. It is preferable to have little or no fragmentation at all. On the other hand, embryologists may capture multinucleation (presence of more than one nucleus per cell). Multinucleation is very hard to identify but may unfortunately indicate chromosomal abnormality of the embryo.

Embryo quality and grading includes one more important criteria – cell regularity. It is desired that blastomeres are of the same or close to the same size.

After the observation on the day 3,  embryos having no fragmentations and including equally sized 6-10 cells will be considered of high quality and will be assigned the highest grade. Laboratory will assign further grades according to their own system. The higher the quality grades are, so is the likelihood of successful implantation.


Grading on day 5


On the 5th day after fertilization,embryo contains increased number of cells and a fluid cavity. As the cells are growing, they start to form in different types. We encounter two cell types on the day 5. First type forms the Inner Cell Mass (ICM) and the second one is called Trophectoderm Epithelium (TE). Day 5 embryo is referred to as Blastocyst and has reached the development stage when it is getting ready to attach itself to the uterine lining (Implantation).

ICM will grow into fetus and TE will form pregnancy essential tissues.  Due to their importance for gestation, day 5 grading system evaluates both cell types separately. ICM and TE will be both observed for their amount and density (how tightly are they packed). For example a lot of tightly packed cells indicate higher quality than loosely packed fewer ones.

Blastocyst should implant soon. Above mentioned cell types divide and fluid cavity has to enlarge and hatch out of its shell.  Fluid cavity’s volume in the embryo is one more criteria of 5th day grading.  It should begin to outgrow the space inside of the shell (zona pellucida) and then the blastocyst will be ready for the implantation.

Day 5 embryo will be assigned the higher quality grade, when fluid cavity has reached the appropriate volume, ICM is tightly packed, is sufficient in amount and TE is also forming a cohesive layer with sufficient quantity of cells.

As already mentioned, clinics may use different grading systems and utilize numbers or symbols to assign grades. However, most of the laboratories use exactly above mentioned criterias to evaluate the potential of an embryo.

While talking about the chances of successful gestation, high embryo quality and grading is not  a 100% guarantee. There are far more details included in the successful outcome. Sometimes an embryo does not implant because it has a genetic or chromosomal abnormality. It also happens that a lower grade embryo results in an unproblematic gestation because it has healthy genetics. A lot of clinics will suggest doing preimplantation genetic screening(PGS). This procedure checks chromosomal normality in the embryo.

Positive results in PGS and middle to high graded embryo already give a reasonable purpose to estimate a healthy pregnancy.


Surrogacy – Possible Medical Risks

Gestational surrogacy is an emotionally overwhelming process. Finding a professional surrogacy agency, preparing for the program, going through IVF, transferring an embryo to surrogate and waiting for the positive results… There are more details in between these steps.


It is a great relief when everything is completed successfully and your gestational carrier(surrogate mother) is now bearing your baby. The most complicated and complex tasks are already left behind. The fact that embryo transfer and implantation was successful is already a huge step forward.


Gestational problems are not very likely to occur to a surrogate mother  and we will further explain why. However, because there is still a chance that pregnancy can go wrong, intended parents should be informed about possible medical risks of surrogacy.


Health of a surrogate mother is observed and monitored intensively before admitting her to the program. Her medical history must be absolutely suitable for a future pregnancy. A lot of agencies require that surrogate is already a mother to a healthy child. Unhealthy habits (smoking, drinking alcohol and etc) have to be absent absolutely. Intended parents are and should be allowed to request any information concerning their gestational carrier’s medical and mental health. After such a close observation and control, surrogate mother is very likely to have a successful pregnancy and deliver a healthy child.


However, let us address possible medical risks of surrogacy anyway.


Possible medical risks

Surrogate mothers, similar to any other females are likely to experience slight weaknesses that accompany nearly every gestation. Symptoms may include :

  • Sickness
  • Mood swings
  • Change in appetite
  • Nausea
  • Slight abdominal and lower back pain


If any of the symptoms are no longer mild and cause a serious discomfort, surrogate mother should address a healthcare provider and inform the surrogacy agency as soon as possible.


Severeness of any symptom may lead to miscarriage, preterm labour and other serious complications.  Pregnancy may seem healthy  but it is still possible for gestational carriers to experience common types of pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes,preeclampsia and so on). Baby might inherit genetic abnormality from intended parents that needs to be captured on time.


As already mentioned, surrogate mothers may experience mood swings. Sometimes it is emotionally intimidating to carry a baby for 9 months, monitor your and his/her health throughout the process, go through labour and finally have to give the baby up (independent of having no biological connection to the child).


If needed, surrogate mothers should have the ability to attend therapies. Agency should explain to them  the distribution of roles in surrogacy and reinforce the position of both sides in legal documents.


What should be done for the best results?

First of all, commissioning parents have to discuss all scenarios with their surrogacy agencies :


  • What are the medical risks of surrogacy?
  • What will happen if gestational mother has pregnancy complications?
  • How do we know that surrogate visits doctors regularly?
  • What is the backup plan?
  • How are we sure that surrogate will give up the child? (This is not an issue in countries where surrogacy is regulated by the law  – Ukraine and Georgia are perfect examples.)


Commissioning parents should request and receive regular information about :


  • Surrogate mother’s health
  • Baby’s health
  • The course of pregnancy
  • Test results


Surrogacy agency, on the other hand, is responsible for :


  • Controlling surrogate’s visits to health care provider
  • Collection of medical data
  • Informing intended parents


Independent from their motivation , surrogate mothers are doing an amazing job delivering babies to their biological parents.To avoid any kind of complications and medical risks, like any other female –  lifestyle, mental and physical health of gestational carrier  has to be monitored on regular basis.


Implantation Failure

Journey to parenthood is sometimes full of obstacles and challenges. Before reaching a healthy pregnancy, female organism has to complete several complicated stages. It happens that our bodies are not always capable of dealing with their tasks. Implantation failure is one of the most frustrating experiences on the way to parenthood. We have to learn about ways of helping our bodies to conduct required processes successfully.


What is implantation?

Once an egg is fertilized successfully, female body starts to prepare for pregnancy. Walls of the uterus start to thicken and grow in order to protect and nourish embryo throughout the following 9 months of gestation. Wall of the uterus is called endometrium and is where the fertilized egg attaches itself for further growth and development. The process of attachment is called implantation.

Accordingly, when we refer to implantation failure, we mean that fertilized egg was not able to attach itself to the wall of the uterus.

Implantation is probably one of the most complicated processes before the successful pregnancy.  Implantation failure may contribute to unexplained infertility in females. Abnormalities that occur during  implantation are indeed complicated to capture.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) stands for procedures that aim to achieve pregnancy through surrogacy, in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and etc. Throughout  ART programs, implantation failure is one of the most common occurrences. While IVF is an amazingly successful treatment of infertility, not all cycles tend to result in successful implantation.


Recurrent implantation failure

Recurrent implantation failure refers to inability to achieve pregnancy after four embryo transfers, provided that embryos are of a good quality. Unfortunately up to 10% of females experience implantation problems during their IVF treatment.


Some of the related tests and factors include :


  • White blood cells, leukocytes , are responsible for protecting body from infections and “invaders”. Increased level of white blood cells are found to contribute to recurrent failure of cycles. Doctors, however, may suggest to not treat this issue. It is a controversial and confusing task to treat infertility by suppressing the immune system – which is so important later during the pregnancy. Drugs suitable for treatment can be risky for mother and a child. Before the beginning of treatment, parents should consider discussing all of the possible outcomes with their doctors.
  • Endometrial scratch is the procedure when doctor passes a thin catheter through cervix. Disruptions caused by catheter rotation result in response within the endometrium and surprisingly is found to have a positive effect on endometrium ability of reception. Doctor may also pass a thin telescope into the womb and observe if there is a polyp or a scar tissue that needs to be removed.
  • It is available to observe a tissue from endometrium to find an underlying problem. Scientists claim that it is possible to analyze a number of genes (more than 200) that are associated with implantation.
  • Clotting of the blood is a further factor that can hold pregnancy from progressing. Doctor might prescribe medications to thin the blood as a part of treatment.


While controlling health of parents is essential, experience revealed that the cause of implantation failure is usually hiding behind egg quality and rarely behind sperm or uterus.

  • Preimplantation genetic screening is the process of removing a cell from IVF embryo and testing it for genetic conditions and chromosomal abnormalities. Studies suggest that maternal age is the typical reason behind chromosomal abnormality in embryo. If several IVF attempts are unsuccessful, using a young egg donor is likely to result in normal pregnancy. Together with female’s age, abnormalities in mature eggs increase correspondingly.


It is particularly hard to make predictions about implantation. Scientists still have a long way to go until they investigate this stage closely. However, above mentioned tests and facts are proved to be relevant while discovering and solving the issue.


Surrogacy in Kenya

Surrogacy in Kenya has become a very actual topic in the field of fertility. Branches of professional surrogacy agencies are operating with amazing success rate in the capital city – Nairobi. We will introduce some important details about surrogacy in Kenya and figure out why or whether it is a practical destination choice.



Surrogacy in Kenya is not regulated by the law. This means that there is no act that either restricts or supports intended parents. Lack of regulations allow surrogacy agencies to act more flexibly and adjust their actions to individual needs of each patient.  Single, married and LGBT parents are all welcome  by agencies and clinics in Kenya.

Parents do not have to worry that absence of law will complicate the process of getting the birth certificate. While it is fairly simple in countries where surrogacy is legal( e.g: Ukraine,Georgia) , in Kenya parents have to go through an additional procedure. The surrogate mother signs the affidavit  relinquishing all her rights and gives custody to the genetic father. However, this is not problematic. Surrogate mothers are not likely at all to keep the child. They are providing a great help to infertile couples, but at the same time their motivation behind this action is their monetary interest. They have to improve lives of them and their families. For that reason, they will no doubt give parenthood to intended parents.


Quality of Service

Recently  there has been a lot of changes in the field of surrogacy worldwide. A lot countries, including India, banned it. We can say that this fact turned out somewhat advantageous for Kenya.  Indian doctors, who used to be successful when surrogacy was legal in India, are now owners of clinics in Nairobi. Thanks to professionalism of these doctors, parents do not have to worry about success rate and quality. Same applies to maternity hospitals. Of course IVF clinics are well equipped and enjoy well deserved good reputation. The last but not least, as we have already mentioned in the beginning, professional and experienced surrogacy agencies now offer their service in Kenya as well – most of them having  huge egg donor databases. Everything for the most affordable prices.


Nairobi , the capital city of Kenya,  is developed and modern – even closer to European cities than some cities in Southeast Asia. Travelling there is safe and a pleasant experience. Parents can even combine their visit with unforgettable safari holidays.


From everything we listed, we can now sum up the information.


  • Service is available to single and gay parents
  • Quality of service  and success rate are high
  • City is safe, modern and developed
  • Prices are realistic and affordable


  • Intended parents need consent of a surrogate mother


Verdict:  Summarizing all pros and cons, we can tell that Kenya is an attractive option to consider. While parents may have some doubts about adoption procedure, surrogacy agencies are responsible for guaranteeing in advance that there will be no problems with the surrogate mother(that is what professional agencies do). Kenya is also one of the most cost effective options not to mention that lately we have faced  lack of destinations for single and gay parents.


Pregnancy Complications

Pregnancy is a very special period that needs a lot of attention. A female body undergoes a number of changes during the gestation. It is a common experience to have mild headaches, nausea, dizziness and other minor discomforts. However if symptoms get even a bit disturbing, females should contact their doctors immediately. Lack of control and care may lead to serious pregnancy complications that may affect a baby as well.


Future parents should be informed about all common types of pregnancy complications and in case of noticing any of the symptoms, should be able to act accordingly.


Some of the common pregnancy complications include :


Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are very frequent symptoms during pregnancy. While it is a common knowledge, females should also know that if nausea gets severe, it may be serious. Pregnant women suffering from heavy nausea may not be able to drink or eat. Malnutrition and dehydration can do harm to baby’s development.



Bleeding during pregnancy is a serious issue and needs an immediate attention.

It may indicate several things throughout the pregnancy. Heavy bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain could be a sign of ectopic pregnancy. Depending on the period of gestation when the bleeding occurs, it may mean miscarriage or placenta separating from the uterine lining (“placental abruption”).


Flu symptoms

Immune system weakens during pregnancy and makes females less resistant to flu. Doctors usually recommend pregnant women to get the flu vaccine. During gestation, females are more likely to experience flu complications that may become harmful for a baby too (in some cases even causing miscarriage). Flu vaccination is safe for mother and has benefits for a baby. When  pregnant female gets vaccinated, antibodies are delivered to baby via placenta and protects child up to several months after delivery. Additionally, mother’s strengthened immune system can have a positive influence on unborn baby’s development.

Healthy meal plan, good rest and sleep, exercise and hygiene are the best things to follow in order to avoid getting sick during pregnancy.



Extreme sadness is a surprisingly common issue during pregnancy. Changes in body during and after pregnancy are usually responsible for symptoms similar to depression – anxiety, being moody and restless.Females may also feel irritation and swings in appetite. Mother’s extreme sadness has a negative influence on a baby. Sometimes if depression is severe,  women may even think about harming themselves or babies. Therapy and medicines are essential to regulate mother’s mental condition.


Preterm labour

If female has regular contractions before the 37th week of gestation, it can be due to preterm labour. Before 37 weeks baby is considered to be premature and the preterm labour may cause health problems to him/her. If labour starts too early, it can be even fatal for a child. Medicines are used to delay the labour and a bed rest is usually advised. In sake of survival and satisfactory health, it is better for baby to be as mature as possible at the time of delivery.



Preeclampsia is a serious condition and is diagnosed if a pregnant female has high blood pressure, too much protein in urine or problem with kidneys. Symptoms may also include blurred vision, headaches and dizziness. Preeclampsia starts after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Many females develop mild symptoms near to the due date. Doctors will need to induce the labour as delivery is the best option during the condition. These females will usually do just fine and give a birth to healthy children.

However situation may be risky if the symptoms are severe and it is too early to deliver. Doctor will have to watch mother and a child very closely, give them appropriate care, recommend bed rest and prescribe medicines to lower the blood pressure.


High blood pressure

If mother begins to have high blood pressure after 20 weeks of pregnancy and has no other symptoms, both mother and baby should be watched closely in order to exclude preeclampsia.


Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes or glucose intolerance means high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Body doesn’t produce appropriate amounts of insulin, hormone that regulates sugar. In most cases, condition is temporary and mothers are able to control their blood sugar levels. They need to exercise and follow diet from their doctors.

Poorly monitored and controlled diabetes can cause serious consequences for a baby (early delivery, breathing problems). It may also increase the risk of preeclampsia.

Later in life, females who have experienced gestational diabetes, have a higher chance to develop type 2 diabetes. It is essential for them to control their weight and lead healthy lifestyles.


Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy is a condition when fertilized egg attaches itself outside of the uterus(instead of the inside). This kind of pregnancies are also referred to as tubal, because majority of them  occur in the fallopian tube. Symptoms may include abdominal  pain, dizziness, fainting and bleeding. Unfortunately ectopic pregnancy is a serious complication and needs to be spotted timely. It can be fatal because internal bleeding will begin if embryo tears the fallopian tube. There is no way to place tissue inside the uterus, so ending pregnancy is the only option during this condition.


Baby’s (fetal) problems

Unborn baby’s health should be monitored regularly.Sometimes females may feel them moving less than before. Doctor may also discover that  baby is smaller than normal on the certain stage of pregnancy (gestational age). In order to detect baby’s health issues, such as problematic organs or problems with growth, doctors will need several tests. Treatments may vary. Sometimes it is advised to deliver early. On the other hand, baby might not be in trouble at all and mother may only need a special care(bed rest) before the delivery.


In order to prevent serious pregnancy complications, health of a mother and a child should be monitored regularly. Additionally, parents as well as other family members, should do their best to provide healthy and caring atmosphere for the yet unborn member of their family.


Stillbirth – Common Causes and Risk Factors

Stillbirth or fetal death is a loss of the pregnancy. It is not a very common occurrence, but unfortunately remains as a very painful experience for many parents. Reasons and risk factors that lead to stillbirth are various and it is not simple to talk about exact ones in advance. Our aim is to explore the incident as closely as possible and inform our readers about common causes and threats.


What is stillbirth?

Stillbirth is the death of a baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Most fetal deaths occur before a female goes into labor and a significantly less number of stillbirths happen during labour and birth. Miscarriage and stillbirth, both refer to a loss of pregnancy. The main difference lies within the stage of pregnancy when they occur (miscarriage before 20 weeks and stillbirth after). However stillbirth too has a further classification:

  • An early stillbirth – happens between 20 – 27 weeks of pregnancy.
  • A late stillbirth – happens between 28-36 weeks.
  • A term stillbirth – happens during/after 37th week.


If a female stops to feel a baby moving or kicking, experiences cramping , pain and bleeding from the vagina, she should immediately call a doctor or go straight to the emergency room. The healthcare provider will use an ultrasound to check baby’s heartbeat.


Causes of stillbirth in the womb

While causes of stillbirth can be completely individual, based on the experience we listed all of the common reasons:

  • Problems with the placenta

The exact reason why placenta may not function normally is not yet completely understood. However, we know that problems with the placenta is one of the most common causes of baby’s death in the uterus. As placenta provides oxygen and nutrients for the baby, it’s dysfunction causes problems with baby’s growth.

It may happen that placenta separates from the wall of the uterus before birth. This condition is called placental abruption. Females who smoke during pregnancy, are more likely to experience placental abruption than others.

Obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol and drug intake reduce the oxygen delivered to a baby via placenta.

If a female is several weeks past her due date, the placenta may not longer be as functional as before. In this case doctors will normally suggest to induce the labour in order to prevent placenta from ‘wearing out’.

  • Infections

Infections in placenta, mother or a child may cause serious complications. It also includes flu that mother has accidentally caught during pregnancy.

  • Mother’s condition

Diabetes, high blood pressure, trauma, injury, thyroid disorder.

  • Autoimmune disorder (Lupus)

Antibodies that are supposed to attack infections, might mistakenly attack any other tissue in the body. Doctors usually advise females with lupus not to get pregnant due to risks it may cause to mother as well as to child.

  • Preterm Labour

Labour that begins earlier than 37th week of pregnancy.

  • Fetal (Intrauterine) growth restriction

Sometimes babies are smaller than they should be for their gestational age. The prematurity is often the cause of stillbirth.

  • Child’s health condition

Birth or chromosomal defects and genetic conditions can lead to fetal death. About 10% of stillborn babies have birth defects including down syndrome or insufficient development of an organ such as heart and brain.

  • Mother’s age

As females get older, chances of stillbirth increase accordingly, reaching the highest point by the 41th week of pregnancy.


Reasons of stillbirth during labour and birth

  • Not getting enough oxygen during labour and birth
  • Shoulder dystocia

If baby is relatively large, it may happen that his or her shoulders are stuck behind mother’s pubic bone. Most of these children recover, but shoulder dystocia can still lead to the fetal death.


Risk factors

Several factors are confirmed to make female’s chances of stillbirth higher. It will not come as a surprise that risk factors include poor lifestyle choices. Females should know in advance that it is crucial to stay as healthy as possible while bearing a child.


Chances of fetal death may increase with:

  • Obesity
  • Smoking, alcohol and drug consumption during pregnancy
  • Mother’s age (older than 35)
  • Mother’s medical condition(diabetes, high blood pressure, lupus)
  • Being pregnant with multiple children
  • Previous pregnancy complications or losses (miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth …)


What follows after stillbirth in the womb?

Usually the labour will start itself after 2 weeks of fetal death. However, due to medical reasons (such as infection)health provider may recommend to give birth as soon as possible. Options include:


  • Induced labour – doctor breaks amniotic sac or gives female a medicine. Labour will speed up with both of these methods.
  • Cesarean birth – baby is delivered through a surgical procedure by doctor making a cut in the abdomen and uterus.


For the most of the females, fetal death is a single time experience. Doctors have to  make sure that the health condition present during the previous pregnancy is not a threat any more. After females are ready mentally and physically, they manage to have a normal pregnancy and deliver healthy children. The keypoint is to never stop fighting and overcome all of the obstacles despite the painful experiences – just because it’s worth it.


Surrogacy in Georgia

Republic of Georgia is a well-known surrogacy destination and has the top reputation in the field of  fertility in the Caucasian region. Surrogacy has been legal since 20 years already and the country has been visited by a huge number of patients. We have to objectively evaluate the reason behind such a popularity and decide ourselves, whether surrogacy in Georgia is really worth a go.



Surrogacy in Georgia is regulated by law and is legal for more than 20 years already. Only married heterosexual couples are allowed to participate in surrogacy programs. Collection of documents is a fairly simple process. Due to the regulation by law, birth certificate is issued as in any other case – it only includes the names of parents. No presence of a surrogate mother is required and neither she, nor an egg donor (if used) are mentioned in the document. The absence of bureaucracy in the country, contributes a lot to the positive experiences of parents.


Public service hall (“PSH”) is a unique service offered in Georgia, which allows to collect all of the needed documents in one space: be it birth or marriage certificate, ID card, passport and so on. The service is incredibly fast and comfortable. Receiving documents with such an ease, is usually a guarantee that parents will not face the delayed stay.


Surrogacy Agencies and IVF Clinics

The main part of the surrogacy agencies and clinics are located in the capital city – Tbilisi. The fact that surrogacy in Georgia is legal for more than 20 years already, accounts a lot for their successful operation. Years of experience and development has resulted in more than 10 in vitro clinics and professional surrogacy agencies. Stuff, including doctors, are very caring and professional. Very well equipped clinics are ready to lead any procedure.

Both agencies and clinics have a vast egg donor databases. However, usually, most of the donors have brown hair and eyes. If parents are strictly looking for an egg donor with blue/green eyes and blonde hair, they might have to choose the travelling egg donor from their service provider’s international database. Usually this could be travelling donors from Ukraine or Poland.


About the Country

Due to its attractive location, on the border of Asia and Europe, Georgia has served a huge number of patients from different parts of the world. The capital is a very interesting combination of an old and a modern city. According to the statistics,  Georgia is the world’s 5th safest place for living. Residents are known for their hospitality and most of them, apart from their mother tongue, speak fluent English and Russian.

You can see photos of Tbilisi here.


Now it is time to come to the conclusion listing pros and cons of surrogacy in Georgia.




  • Affordable prices (In comparison to USA and Canada, prices are significantly lower)
  • Regulation by the law – no disputes as a result
  • Document collection is simple
  • Well equipped clinics
  • Experienced surrogacy agencies and in vitro clinics
  • Safety




  • Less blonde and green/blue eyed donors (Parents can still choose a travelling donor from the international database).
  • Country is not the member of the EU

Strict legal EU protection does not apply to clinics. However, Georgia has just received the visa free travel with Schengen, which is also a great step forward to country’s recognition.


Verdict : Based on the experience we are happy to approve Georgia as an attractive destination for surrogacy. Prices are indeed affordable compared to the qualification and quality of the service offered – patients should definitely take the advantage of that.



Miscarriage is defined as a loss of pregnancy during the first 20 weeks. Unfortunately it is a common experience. To overcome  the emotional stress and fears associated with this term, it is a huge step forward to be familiar with causes , symptoms and be able to evaluate the situation objectively. Medical term for miscarriage is “spontaneous abortion”, but you will normally come across them only in medical articles.


How common is miscarriage?


Up to 20 % of recognized pregnancies end with miscarriage. The actual number is likely up to 40-50 % , because miscarriage also occurs when female is in a very early stage of pregnancy and is not yet aware of her condition.  Miscarriage is less likely to occur after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 80 % of all losses occur within the first 3 months.


When should we call a doctor?


First of all, feel comfortable to reach your doctor anytime you feel the need to do so. Parents are able to find any kind of information on internet. While it is a very good practice for informing and educating ourselves, it will do no good after noticing any kind of discomfort or symptom. If you are experiencing any of the following symptoms during pregnancy, we highly recommend to call/visit a doctor and ask for advice or medical tests and treatment if needed. Common symptoms include:


  • Bleeding or spotting

Some females experience light vaginal bleeding or spotting during the early stage of pregnancy. Half of them result with normal pregnancy. Be concerned about bleeding that goes from light to heavy.

  • Abdominal pain or cramping
  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Lower back pain
  • Clotted fluid passing from vagina


What causes miscarriage?


Reasons behind miscarriage vary and sometimes can not be identified at all. Common causes include :


  • Chromosomal abnormality

The most common reason behind the miscarriage during the first trimester (3 months) is chromosomal abnormality. This means that fetus is not developing normally and has extra or missing chromosomes. Most often, problems are the result of damaged egg or sperm cell,the errors that take place by the time when embryo divides and grows.

  • Medical condition of a mother (thyroid disease, uncontrolled diabetes)
  • Uterus problems
  • Infections
  • Hormone problems
  • Implantation failure

The attachment process of the fertilized egg to the uterine lining did not happen properly.

  • Wrong lifestyle (alcohol or drug consumption, smoking, eating poorly)


It is a common behaviour to convince our pregnant friends and relatives that they should not be as active as before. However there are several activities that are believed to be harmful by mistake and have nothing to do with miscarriage. Exercising, including jogging and swimming are not harmful for a baby. Working in a healthy atmosphere (no radiation and chemicals) is also totally acceptable.


What increases the chance of miscarriage?


Risk factors include:


  • Age

The chances of miscarriage rise after the age of 35(20% chance). The number rises even significantly after the age of 40(up to 40%) and reaches as much as 80%  by the age of 45.

  • Previous miscarriages

Females who have already experienced miscarriages 2 or more times in a row, are more likely to be in risk again. Usually, miscarriage occurs one time only and a lot of females who miscarry, have healthy pregnancies on their next attempts.

  • Lifestyle

While drinking a glass of wine on a very special occasion has not proved to be risky, alcohol intake on regular basis can lead to miscarriage. Smoking and the use of drugs should be eliminated. Caffeine intake should also be as low as possible.

  • Environment

Pregnant females should not be exposed to radiation or harmful chemicals.

  • Chronic diseases
  • Weight

Overweight as well as underweight females might be at risk of miscarriage. Future mothers should try to keep their weight in healthy limits.

  • Medications

Consult your doctor before taking any kind of medicine. Some of them are proved to be increasing the chances of miscarriage.


Based on blood and tissue tests, pelvic exam and ultrasound, doctor will check the course of pregnancy. If there is a threat, doctor may advise to have a good rest until the symptoms are gone.  


If the medical procedures determined that the embryo died or was never formed, there are several options : female can wait for an expulsion of placenta and pregnancy tissue to happen naturally. If female wants to speed the process up, it is possible to turn to vaginal or oral medication. Another option is a small surgical procedure,during which the surgeon removes the tissue from the inside of the uterus.


Physical recovery may take from several hours to several days and it is possible to get pregnant on the first menstrual cycle after the miscarriage. However, taking into account past experience, it is better to consult with the doctor before trying to conceive. It is essential to be ready – both mentally and physically for the next pregnancy. Attitude can always contribute to the outcome and it is of the greatest importance to never give up on the way to fulfill our dream of parenthood!


Top 3 Egg Donor Agencies

Choosing the right agency is always of the greatest importance.Today we will reveal top 3 egg donor agencies in the world, but first of all, we have to define our “rules”. When we are talking about professional agencies, it’s pretty obvious that most of them have pretty big donor databases and are doing their job successfully. Choosing the best of best of course includes agency’s individual and careful approach towards each of the patients.


However, apart from reliability and availability, we decided to add more criterias while choosing the best ones:


  • Agency provides not only anonymous, but known donors as well.
  • Agency has travelling egg donors.
  • Agency’s database includes donors from different ethnic groups.


Egg donors from the top agencies travel all around the world upon patients’ requests and needs. These agencies have years of experience in handling tasks even abroad and until today maintain a very good reputation among colleagues and intended parents. Moreover, they treat their egg donors with great care and attention, which is also a huge step forward to success.


New Life Egg Donor Agency

We have granted the honourable top position to this agency, because since 2008 their egg donors have travelled literally all around the world. Their database includes :

  • Ukrainian egg donors
  • Polish egg donors
  • South African egg donors
  • Black African egg donors
  • Chinese egg donors  
  • Thai egg donors
  • Indian egg donors
  • Caucasian egg donors


Global Egg Donor Agency

Global Egg Donors may not have such a various choice in Asian donors, but their steadily good reputation and the years of experience with travelling donors indeed deserve our top ranking and appreciation.



Nurture egg donor program is doing amazingly well, with great service and responsibility they are always at patient’s disposal. However, their databases only include donors from South Africa and United Kingdom.